epidemiology

Hoffa fracture

Definition

Hoffa Fracture Xray

 

Coronal plane fracture of distal femoral condyle

- intra-articular

- often only attachment is posterior capsule

 

Epidemiology

 

Rare

 

Mechanism

 

Usually a severe valgus trauma

 

Xray

 

Background

Definition Dupuytrens

 

Palmar Fibromatosis 

 

Aetiology

 

AD with variable penetration

 

Pathogenesis

 

Murrell's Theory of Pathogenesis

 

1. Microvascular ischaemia

 

Paget's Disease

Definition

 

Chronic, non metabolic bone disorder

Characterised by increased bone resorption, bone formation and remodelling

 

Epidemiology

 

Rare < 40

1 – 3 % population over 60

M > F

 

Aetiology

 

Unknown

 

Paramyxovirus implicated

- measles

- RSV

- canine distemper virus

 

Electron Microscope

Osteoporosis

Epidemiology

 

1/3 caucasian women > 64

 

Risk Factors

 

Insufficient bone mass at time of skeletal maturity

- peak bone mass is achieved at age 25

 

Rapid loss of bone after menopause

 

Low body weight / weight loss / history of smoking / steroids

 

Primary

 

Type 1

- postmenopausal

- high turnover / osteoclast mediated

- F x 6

Deltoid Ligament

 

Epidemiology

 

Incidence isolated deltoid ligament injury 2.5%

 

Anatomy

 

Strong fan-shaped structure 

- composed of a deep and superficial layer

 

Superficial layer 

- inserts as one continuous structure 

- navicular anteriorly, spring ligament (calcaneonavicular), sustentaculum, and calcaneum 

- measures 10 mm wide at its origin and 2 to 3 mm thick

Proximal Hamstring Tear

EpidemiologyProximal Hamstring Tear

 

Adolescent apophyseal avulsion

- treat non operatively

- unless displaced > 2 cm

 

Adult

- soft tissue avulsion

 

Aetiology

 

Usually associated with sporting activities

- skiing

- water skiing

 

Violent contraction

- knee extended

- hip flexing

 

Anatomy

 

Myositis Ossificans

Definition

 

Pathological bone formation in soft tissues

 

Epidemiology

 

In elbow

- 3% of trauma

- 89% if head injury + trauma

 

Types

 

Completely different

 

1.  Myosisitis Ossificans Circumscripta

- post traumatic

- more common

- recognised as a consequence of neurological injury