management options

Background

DefinitionGarden 3 Displaced Subcapital

 

Fracture distal to articular surface & proximal to intertrochanteric region

 

Epidemiology

 

On average 4 years younger than intertrochanteric fracture

 

One year mortality as high as 36%

 

Only 1/3 will return to pre-fracture living environment

Displaced Arthroplasty

Indications

 

Patient > 70

 

Gjertsen et al JBJS Am 2010

- 4335 patients > 70 with displaced subcapital fractures

- minimum 1 year follow up

- 1 year mortality same in each group / 25%

- 22% reoperation in ORIF v 3% in hemiarthroplasty

- more pain / higher dissatisfaction / lower quality life in ORIF group

 

Options

 

Hemiarthroplasty

- unipolar monoblock

- unipolar modular

Management Intra-articular Fractures

Operative v Nonoperative Literature

 

1.  Buckley etal JBJS Am 2002

 

Prospective multi-centred RCT

- 309 displaced intra-articular fractures

- operative v non operative management

- 2 year follow up

 

Findings

- used patient orientated functional outcomes

- overall VAS and SF36 not significantly different between 2 groups

 

Improved Operative Outcome if

- not workers compensation

- women

- < 29

Management

Incidence

 

Knee > Hip

- superficial position

- limited cover of well vascularised muscle 

- watershed area of skin blood supply anterior to the skin incision 

- much increased in fully constrained prosthesis 

 

Ideal < 1%

 

Risk Factors

 

Increased with

- revision

- prior infection

- RA / Psoriatic arthropathy

- DM

Management

NHx

 

European Orthopaedic Paediatric Study JPO 1999

- 452 patients

- juvenile and adult

 

Findings

- stable lesion with cartilage intact and no dissection had good prognosis

- if signs dissection, surgical management better than non surgical

- sclerosis on x-ray poor prognostic sign

- lesions > 2cm poor prognosis

- 20% OCD in juveniles abnormal x-ray findings at 3 years (not benign process)

Tibial Stress Fractures

EpidemiologyTibial Stress Fracture

 

Athletic / high impact exercises

 

Aetiology

 

First described in ballet dancers (Burrows 1956)

- tension side of bone / lateral side

- progression to complete fracture has been well documented in athletes

 

Signs

 

Point tenderness

- lateral aspect of tibia

 

Over time develop bony lump

 

Infected THR

Risk factors

 

Patient 

 

Advanced age

Immunosuppression - steroids / Rheumatoid / DM

Malnutrition - Lymphocyte count / Transferrin / Albumin

Vascular disease

Obesity

Poor skin i.e. psoriasis

Previous infection in joint

Infection elsewhere - i.e. UTi

Prolonged hospital admission

Revision surgery

 

Operative Factors

 

Preoperative