Informed consent

- involves the patient actively participating in the management process with respect to

- goals of management

- therapeutic alternatives

- potential benefits

- risk of complications


Risks / Benefit / Outcomes / Alternatives


Must be in layperson terms


Must be able to comprehend discussion




X-ray & major investigation findings

Diagnosis & why that conclusion has been reached

NHx of condition

Management options including non-operative

Recommended treatment

Prognosis with and without surgery

Nature of surgery

Risks of surgery

Next step if proposed treatment not effective

Questions answered




1.  Advanced Health Directive

2.  Relative or friend

3.  Legal Guardian




No specific age limit

- need to be mentally competent

- i.e. 14 - 16 is old enough to sign own consent


Definition of Competency


Mini Mental State Exam