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Vertical Shear

Vertical shear

 

Definition

 

Unstable injuries

Complete disruption of both the anterior and posterior ring

 

5 - 20% of pelvic fractures

 

Mechanism

 

Axial load

Motor vehicle accident

Fall from height

 

Pathology

 

Anterior ring

Internal snapping hip

Cause

 

Movement of iliopsoas tendon over femoral head / iliofemoral ridge / iliofemoral ligament

 

Can be seen following THA with cup impingement

 

Symptoms

 

Audible or palpable snap in the groin

 

Hip moves

- from flexed / abducted / externally rotated position

- to extended / internally rotated position

 

Incidence

 

10% of the population - usually painless

Central Cord Syndrome

Epidemiology

 

Most common pattern cord injury

 

Hyper-extension injury in middle aged man with osteoarthritic spine

 

Usually C3/4 and C4/5

 

Mechanism

 

Most common type / in older patient with pre-existing spondylosis / OPLL

- hyperextension injury

- compression of the cord

- anteriorly by osteophytes

- posteriorly by infolded ligamentum flavum

 

CRPS

Definition

 

Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome

 

CRPS 1

 

Sympathetically mediated pain syndrome

- excessive or exaggerated response of extremity to injury, surgery or disease

 

Manifested by

- intense or unduly prolonged pain

- vasomotor disturbances

- trophic changes

- delayed functional recovery

 

CRPS 2

 

MCL Insufficiency

AetiologyTommy John Surgery

 

Throwing injury

- seen in the throwing athlete

- repetitive microtrauma / valgus stress

- develop laxity

 

History

 

Initially

- lose velocity / accuracy

 

Develop medial pain

 

40% ulna nerve symptoms