indications surgery

Distal Radius Fracture



2 groups


1.  Elderly

- low velocity injury

- osteoporotic

- need to start bisphosphonates


2.  Young patients

- high velocity injury




Distal Radius Angles

- radial volar tilt 11°

- radial inclination  22°

- radius is 11 mm longer than ulna 

- ulna variance 2mm positive on average


Clavicle Fractures

Clavicle Fracture Displaced



Usually a direct blow 

- less commonly a fall on the outstretched hand


RTA / sporting accidents commonest causes


Can be pathological as a result of radionecrosis

- eg following radiotherapy for breast cancer.  




Fractures of the clavicle are common

B Management Options



Natural History of ACL deficient knee is variable

- functional instability 15% - 90%

- progression to OA is variable


Depends on level of patient demands / activity


1.  Late meniscal injury in ACL deficient knee




2.  Function


Daniels Am J Sports Med 1994

- 292 ACL defecients knees