etiology

DIC

Definition

 

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

 

Pathology

 

Results from excessive activation of either extrinsic or intrinsic coagulation pathway

- multiple small clots 

- consumptive coagulopathy

 

1.  Excessive Extrinsic Activation

 

Secondary to extensive cellular destruction

- thromboplastins +++ released into circulation

CRPS

Definition

 

Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome

 

CRPS 1

 

Sympathetically mediated pain syndrome

- excessive or exaggerated response of extremity to injury, surgery or disease

 

Manifested by

- intense or unduly prolonged pain

- vasomotor disturbances

- trophic changes

- delayed functional recovery

 

CRPS 2

 

Von Willebrand's Disease

Incidence

 

Most common of the bleeding disorders

- 1:100

 

Function

 

vWF            

- needed for platelet adhesion and platelet-platelet interactions

- also carrier for factor VIII / protects it from rapid breakdown

 

Aetiology

 

Gene on chromosome 12

1.  Reduced production VWF

Proximal Hamstring Tear

EpidemiologyProximal Hamstring Tear

 

Adolescent apophyseal avulsion

- treat non operatively

- unless displaced > 2 cm

 

Adult

- soft tissue avulsion

 

Aetiology

 

Usually associated with sporting activities

- skiing

- water skiing

 

Violent contraction

- knee extended

- hip flexing

 

Anatomy

 

Myositis Ossificans

Definition

 

Pathological bone formation in soft tissues

 

Epidemiology

 

In elbow

- 3% of trauma

- 89% if head injury + trauma

 

Types

 

Completely different

 

1.  Myosisitis Ossificans Circumscripta

- post traumatic

- more common

- recognised as a consequence of neurological injury

 

Hip Dislocation

IncidencePosterior Hip Dislocation

 

Young men

 

Posterior / Anterior 9:1

 

Aetiology

 

High velocity injury

- head direction at impact decides direction of dislocation

 

Anterior Dislocation 

 

Externally rotated & abducted leg

- flexion = inferior dislocation

Transient Osteoporosis Hip

Definition

 

Self limiting syndrome of unknown aetiology

- hip pain associated with osteoporosis of proximal femur 

 

DDx

 

AVN

- AVN of the hip in pregnancy is rare but possible

- TOH tends to be diffuse on MRI, while AVN is localised

- extends to neck and metaphysis

- transient osteoporosis has normal bone scan

 

Incidence

 

Rare

- M: F 3:1