Central Cord Syndrome



Most common pattern cord injury


Hyper-extension injury in middle aged man with osteoarthritic spine


Usually C3/4 and C4/5




Most common type / in older patient with pre-existing spondylosis / OPLL

- hyperextension injury

- compression of the cord

- anteriorly by osteophytes

- posteriorly by infolded ligamentum flavum


Suprascapular Nerve



C5, 6 from Upper trunk


Posterior triangle

- arises upper trunk and passes backward through posterior triangle

- under belly of omohyoid

- deep to trapezius to the suprascapular notch


Suprascapular Ganglion Coronal MRI


Runs through suprascapular notch

Lumbar Stenosis

DefinitionLumbar Stenosis


Reduction of space available for neural elements in spinal canal or intervertebral foramina

- due to degenerative changes, congenital abnormalities or both

- involves compression of the thecal sac or nerve roots




Onset 50 - 60's

- M = F

- associated with onset OA spine

Cauda Equina



Compression of some or all of the nerve roots in the cauda equina

- bladder dysfunction

- bowel dysfunction

- saddle anaesthesia

- variable motor and sensory loss





- most common


Epidural haematoma

- post surgical

- spinals and anticoagulation